Robert Stuart of the Astorians (a group of fur traders who established Fort Astoria on the Columbia River in western Oregon) became the first white man to use what later became known as the Oregon Trail. Stuart’s 2,000-mile journey from Fort Astoria to St.
Who were the first settlers on the Oregon Trail?
The Wyeth-Lee Party was the first group of settlers to follow the entire route of the Oregon Trail. They were convinced by employees of the Hudson’s Bay Company to leave their wagons at Fort Hall and continue on to the Willamette Valley by pack animals, an inconvenient but successful tactic.
Who was the first leader of the Oregon Trail?
In 1842, the Whitman mission was closed by the American Missionary Board, and Whitman went back to the East on horseback where he lobbied for continued funding of his mission work. In the meantime, missionary Elijah White led over 100 pioneers across the Oregon Trail.
Who were the first pioneers?
The pioneers were the first people to settle in the frontiers of North America. Many of the pioneers were farmers. Others moved west, wanting to establish a business. There were doctors, blacksmiths, ministers, shop owners, lawyers, veterinarians, and many others.
Where did the Oregon Trail start?
The basic route follows river valleys as grass and water were absolutely necessary. While the first few parties organized and departed from Elm Grove, the Oregon Trail’s primary starting point was Independence, Missouri, or Kansas City (Missouri), on the Missouri River.
Who used the Oregon Trail?
Portions of what was to become the Oregon Trail were first used by trappers, fur traders, and missionaries (c. 1811–40) who traveled on foot and horseback.
Where did the Oregon Trail start and stop?
Officially, according to an act of Congress, it begins in Independence, Missouri, and ends in Oregon City, Oregon. To the settlers, though, the trail to the Oregon Country was a five-month trip from their old home in the East to their new home in the West.
What city did the Oregon Trail End in?
Oregon City was the end of the trail for many because it was where land claims were granted for Oregon, Washington, Idaho and Wyoming.
How did the Oregon Trail start?
Travel west on the Oregon Trail began at several towns on the Missouri River, from Independence to Council Bluffs, and then followed routes west on both sides of the Platte River. Companies of wagons formed, emigrants purchased supplies, and the group followed the developing ruts west.
Why did pioneers use oxen instead of horses?
Horses were very expensive so most pioneers used oxen or mules to pull their wagons. Both were strong, steady and able to cross rough terrain. Most families coming to Sutter’s Fort chose oxen because they were cheaper than horses or mules, and they could be eaten if food ran out!
What was the most common death on the Oregon Trail?
Wagon accidents were the most prevalent. Both children and adults sometimes fell off or under wagons and were crushed under the wheels. Others died by being kicked, thrown, or dragged by the wagon’s draft animals (oxen, mules, or horses).
What was the hardest part of the Oregon Trail?
Crossing rivers were probably the most dangerous thing pioneers did. Swollen rivers could tip over and drown both people and oxen. Such accidents could cause the loss of life and most or all of valuable supplies. Animals could panic when wading through deep, swift water, causing wagons to overturn.
Who survived the Oregon Trail?
Most of the emigrants on the Oregon Trail survived the trip. Between four and six percent of the emigrants died along the way – between 12,500 and 20,000 people. This is about one grave for every 200 yards of trail (the length of two football fields). Most of those who died were either children or elderly people.