Arnold Schoenberg developed the influential 12-tone system of composition, a radical departure from the familiar language of major and minor keys.
Who developed the 12-tone method of composition?
composer Arnold Schoenberg
The Austrian-born composer Arnold Schoenberg is credited with the invention of this technique, although other composers (e.g., the American composer Charles Ives and the Austrian Josef Hauer) anticipated Schoenberg’s invention by writing music that in a few respects was similar technically to his 12-tone music.
What is Composing with 12 tones?
Twelve-tone technique—also known as dodecaphony, twelve-tone serialism, and (in British usage) twelve-note composition—is a method of musical composition devised by Austrian composer Arnold Schoenberg (1874–1951).
What is the 12-tone theory or technique?
A twelve-tone series is also commonly called a twelve-tone “row,” and we will use the term “row” throughout this chapter. The four types of row forms used in twelve-tone technique are prime (P), retrograde (R), inversion (I), and retrograde inversion (RI). The prime is the original row.
Which Austrian composer is known for creating the 12-tone System of composition?
Arnold Schoenberg was an Austrian-American composer who created new methods of musical composition involving atonality, namely serialism and the 12-tone row. He was also an influential teacher; among his most significant pupils were Alban Berg and Anton Webern.
When was the 12-tone technique invented?
Though most sources will say it was invented by Austrian composer Arnold Schoenberg in 1921 and first described privately to his associates in 1923, in fact Josef Matthias Hauer published his “law of the twelve tones” in 1919, requiring that all twelve chromatic notes sound before any note is repeated.
What is a 12-tone scale?
The chromatic scale is a musical scale with twelve pitches, each a semitone, also known as a half-step, above or below its adjacent pitches. As a result, in 12-tone equal temperament (the most common tuning in Western music), the chromatic scale covers all 12 of the available pitches.
What is the 12-tone row?
The all-interval twelve-tone row is a tone row arranged so that it contains one instance of each interval within the octave, 0 through 11. The “total chromatic” (or “aggregate”) is the set of all twelve pitch classes. An “array” is a succession of aggregates. The term is also used to refer to lattices.