“Oblique organum” refers to the practice of staying on a note to avoid the tritone. In “free organum” the organal voice appears above the tenor but may cross or mirror it.
What is oblique and parallel organum?
Mixed parallel and oblique organum. Early form of ORGANUM that combines parallel motion with oblique motion (in which the ORGANAL VOICE remains on the same NOTE while the PRINCIPAL VOICE moves) in order to avoid tritones.
What are the 3 types of organum?
#1 – Strict Simple Organum #2 – Strict Composite Organum #3 – Modified Parallel Organum #4 – Free Organum These examples come from the CD set of the Stolba Music History textbook.
What is organum and what are the types of organum?
Organum is a genre of Medieval polyphonic music (music with two or more simultaneous, different voice parts) that reached the peak of its sophistication during the late 1100s-early 1200s in France. In organum, new music would be composed and sometimes improvised on top of the “fixed” music of older Gregorian chant.
What is an example of organum music?
“Benedicamus Domino” is a perfect example of the principles used. “Benedicamus” is usually mixed syllabic—neumatic in that it has mostly one note and maybe two per syllable of text, which is set in florid organum over a sustained tenor.
What organum means?
Definition of organum
1 : early polyphony of the late Middle Ages that consists of one or more voice parts accompanying the cantus firmus often in parallel motion at a fourth, fifth, or octave above or below also : a composition in this style. 2 : organon.
What is a organum in music?
organum, plural Organa, originally, any musical instrument (later in particular an organ); the term attained its lasting sense, however, during the Middle Ages in reference to a polyphonic (many-voiced) setting, in certain specific styles, of Gregorian chant.
What is organa plainchant?
Plural: organa. -Léonin and Pérotin. –Polyphonic work of the 9th-12th centuries consisting of an original plainchant melody in one voice along with at least one additional voice above or below. -based on original plainchant pieces. -earliest form of polyphonic compositions.
What is a melismatic melody?
Melisma (Greek: μέλισμα, melisma, song, air, melody; from μέλος, melos, song, melody, plural: melismata) is the singing of a single syllable of text while moving between several different notes in succession.
What is discant style?
1a : a melody or counterpoint sung above the plainsong of the tenor. b : the art of composing or improvising contrapuntal part music also : the music so composed or improvised.
How many voices are in an organum?
The organum is highly melismatic; can be for 2, 3, or 4 voices; chant is always in the lowest voice called the Tenor. Long held notes in the Tenor except for places where a melisma appears in the chant (see Clausula below).
Why was organum created?
Sometime during the ninth century, music theorists in the Church began experimenting with the idea of singing two melodic lines simultaneously at parallel intervals, usually at the fourth, fifth, or octave. The resulting hollow-sounding music was called organum and very slowly developed over the next hundred years.
What does a organum sound like?
Quote from the video:
Youtube quote: It's called an octave because in church music at the time there were only eight notes to choose from. On the white notes of a modern keyboard the two lines of voices are eight notes apart.
What is melismatic style?
In singing, the term melisma refers to a passage of music that has a group of notes that are sung with just one syllable of text. This is the opposite of syllabic singing, which is singing one note per syllable.
How can we distinguish between organum and polyphony?
is that organum is (music) a type of medieval polyphony which builds upon an existing plainsong while polyphony is (music) musical texture consisting of several independent melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice (monophony) or music with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords (homophony).
Who saved polyphony?
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
In the 16th century, polyphony dominated the Renaissance music, but was often criticized by the church for the lacking comprehensibility of the text. However, it is said that Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina saved the style of polyphony from being banned by the church.
What did Palestrina do for the Catholic church?
In 1544 Palestrina was engaged as organist and singer in the cathedral of his native town. His duties included playing the organ, helping with the choir, and teaching music. His pay was that of a canon and would have been received in money and kind.
Did Palestrina save music?
Most likely, he was a career church musician who was willing to make a few minor adjustments to fit certain requirements because it was the sensible thing to do. Nonetheless, beginning almost immediately in 1564, Palestrina became “the savior of music,” and remained so through the later twentieth century.